Tuesday, June 22, 2010

When will my baby start walking

Babies develop at their own pace. Typically, they start cruising (holding onto furniture to walk sideways) from 8 - 12 months old, and start walking from 10 - 15 months.
These ranges provide a guideline to baby's development. However, if your baby is delayed in achieving these basic motor milestones, consult your paediatrician or physiotherapist for advice.

How Does My Baby Learn To Walk?
Walking is controlled by the two different systems in the brain, known as the motor and sensory systems. They control the leg movements, and maintain the posture and balance in walking respectively.
Your baby's body then awaits basic changes in body proportion - the legs grow longer, shoulders broaden, and the head smaller - making it easier to balance in an upright posture.
Walkind depends on practice. Babies must clock many hours of standing, cruising and walking with some type of support before they can develop the strength and balance to walk on their own.

Should My Baby Use A Walker?
A walker does not help your baby to learn to walk. It is dangerous and potentially fatal. In fact, Canada has already banned the sale of baby walkers.

How Is The Baby Walker More A Weapon Than A Tool?
Danger 1: Baby walkers cause babies to walk later
Baby walkers don't help babies walk earlier. In fact, walkers may even delay your baby's movement skill development or discourage him from learning to walk on his own.
Baby walkers don't help babies walk earlier. In fact, walkers may even delay your baby's movement skill development or discourage him from learning to walk on his own.
Most walkers are designed such that babies are not able to see their feet while walking. This can slow down development of movement as they are unable to make mental connection that it is their legs and feet that are moving the walker.
Walkers make it too easy for babies to move around. Babies who are in walkers tend to explore and satisfy their curiosity without developing their balance or walking skills. This may lead to slower development of balance and walking skills. Studies have shown that babies who spent 2 hours each day in the walker were more delayed in walking than babies who did not use a walker.

Danger 2: Baby walkers cause abnormal walking pattern
The baby's legs are not straight when "walking" in the walker. The hips and knees are bent and he will tend to walk on tiptoe. This causes him to use and develop the wrong leg muscles for walking. Such abnormal walking pattern may be difficult to correct even when he is out of the walker.
Studies have shown that walking pattern of babies worsen with the use of walkers especially if they are already walking in an abnormal way.

Danger 3: Baby walkers can cause serious injuries
Walkers are unsafe. Babies can reac a speed of 1 meter per second in a walker, which is too fast even for an attentive parent to catch should the child speed towards an open door, down the stairs or towards a boiling pot.

So How Can I Encourage My Baby To Learn To Walk?
Discard the walker
  • Use a playpen or play-centre that is stationary. Alternatively, allow a safe, unrestricted floor space for exploration.
  • Help your baby exercise his muscles e.g. supported standing or cruising.
  • Provide sensory stimulation e.g. baby massage.
  • Provide vestibluar stimulation e.g. rocking, bouncing or swing baby.
  • Breast-feeding may help to strengthen baby's muscles.

What If My Child Has An Abnormal Walking Pattern?
Consult your doctor if you notice that your child is walking on his toes or on the sides of the feet.

This article is provided by KK Hospital - Singapore's leading Women and Children's Hospital. Please visitwww.kkh.com.sg for more information.

Images retrieved from: http://www.smcherryhill.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Residential-Baby-Walking.jpg

Friday, June 18, 2010

如何提升兒童專注力 Part 5

如何提升兒童專注力 Part 4

如何提升兒童專注力 Part 3

如何提升兒童專注力 Part 2

如何提升兒童專注力 Part 1

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Late Walkers Are Naturally Smarter

In this issue we examine the importance of crawling to an infant's development, and the possibility that infants who are early walkers may have lower grades at school.

Crawling is an important developmental exercise for infants.
Crawling is a natural instinctive newborn reflex which is designed to protect a baby from asphyxiation when lying face down. A newborn infant has this crawling instinct right from birth, however mobility is delayed until the bones, joints and ligaments are strong enough to support and actively propel the infant into all corners of their newly found world. Babies will usually be ready to crawl actively at about 9-10 months. Delay in crawling can be an indication of orthopedic problems, such as congenital hip dislocation, or of neurological problems, such as cerebral palsy. Most of the time however, delay in crawling is merely an indication that the infant needs more time to achieve the necessary coordination and a required level of physical development. Since the time at which an infant commences crawling is so highly variable, parents should not be overly concerned if their child is a late starter.

An examination of the functional aspects of crawling indicates the relative importance of the development of cross-crawl patterning. The action of crawling requires simultaneous use of opposite extremities i.e., moving right arm with left leg, followed by left arm with right leg and so on, in a reciprocating motion. Motor nerve impulses to the extremities originate in each side of the brain cortex and cross in the brainstem to supply required motor activity to the opposite extremity. Since crawling requires the simultaneous use of opposite extremities, each crawling movement therefore requires the use of both the right and left hemispheres of the brain in a complex action of neurological coordination.

The importance of this phase of development has been the subject of several studies reported in the literature, which allude to the link between early walking and later academic difficulties. Studies of children who were categorized as "early walkers," i.e., those who crawled for a comparatively short time before commencing to walk, demonstrated lower performance scores on pre-schooler assessment tests, supporting the importance of early crawling experience in the development of sensory and motor systems of the body and general motor skill development.1


The onset of walking is regarded as a major milestone in childhood development and is a much celebrated achievement, a time when parents have the videocam at the ready to record those first faltering steps. The age at which children start walking varies considerably, typically occurring at any time from 7-15 months. Parents of a "late walker" can be encouraged by this wide normal range in the walking commencement date. A child's body has an innate understanding of the appropriate stage at which the bones, ligaments, joints, muscles and the nervous system are ready and co-ordinated to withstand the forces of erect stature. Prematurely encouraging children to walk should be discouraged since it may predispose to increased stress on spinal musculoskeletal structures, as well as possible delay in the development of neurological coordination. Several studies have hypothesized the importance of early crawling experience in the development of sensory and motor systems of the body and general motor skill development. The 1991 study of McEwan, et al., which compared the performance of crawlers and non-crawlers on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers showed non-crawlers to have lower average scores.2

Once the infant begins to take those first steps, changes in the alignment of the lower extremities may start to appear, while at the same time the spine commences the task of accommodating to upright posture.

Positional changes of the lower extremities are common in children. During the first year of life, several rotational problems may present. At birth, the newborn infant's feet will usually turn inwards due to the typical position occupied in utero. This internally rotated condition of the feet is called metatarsus adductus and usually resolves spontaneously by the end of the first year in 90 percent of infants.3 A most important step in examining an infant with metatarsus adductus is to check for congenital hip dysplasia, since CHD is more common in this group. Most cases of in-toeing resolve spontaneously by the end of the first year of life and require only observation on the part of the clinician.

In initial walking efforts, the toddler walks on the forefoot with a broad-based flat-footed gait with the hips held in slight flexion and no reciprocating arm swing. By the age of two however most toddlers will have established an upright, heel-strike gait and will swing the arms. Abnormal walking patterns in young children are a source of much interest to the clinician. A waddling gait may be an indicator of orthopedic problems such as infantile coxa vara or of an undetected congenital hip dislocation. Abnormalities in position and placement of the feet may be due to congenital or acquired anomalies in the bones or joints of the lower extremities or pelvis. For example, medial displacement of the sacroiliac joint with fixation may produce lateral rotation of the leg and foot on the fixed side. The opposite is also true: Lateral sacroiliac displacement with fixation may cause medial rotation of the leg and foot on that same side. Because sacroiliac joint subluxation is frequently accompanied by a physiological short leg, frequent falls by a young infant while walking or running should be an indication for the child's chiropractor to evaluate the position, alignment and length of the lower extremities.

The first year of life is a time of milestones for the infant. Parents need to be aware that to rush the process may well not be in the child's best interests. Future academic difficulties would appear to be but one of the potential problems which can be created by the over enthusiastic parent.


1. McEwan MH, Dihoff RE, Brosvic GM: Early infant crawling experience is reflected in later motor skill development. Percept Motor Skills, 72(1):75-9, 1991.

2. Chapelais JD, Macfarlane JA: A review of 404 "late walkers." Arch Dis Child, 59(6):512-6, 1984.

3. Grundy PF, Roberts CJ: Does unequal leg length cause back pain? A case control study. Lancet, 2(8397):256-8, 1984.

by Peter Fysh, DC (San Jose, California)
Retrieved from http://www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=40282

Know Each & Every Step of Your Child

With in a few weeks after the child is born then they try to move from by stepping in our body. Just like the tendency of walking. But it is just a reflexed action.

When the baby attains age of 5months, we could teach him to stand in the elder peoples legs so that they get a balance to stand. At that time, he starts to crawl up and downwards which becomes their favorite hobby for a few months.

When the child attains the age of 8months then they would try to stand with support to chair or short bed. Just see by keeping a toy near by to that sofa then we can see that the baby moves towards it and takes it off. Then with in a few weeks he would study to stand with a support. Then after that while with a support of one hand, the child moves and take the toys off.

Then with in the period of 9-10 months he will be able to stand and then a new task of sitting to him starts. In this period, the importance of parents is must. Some babies while folding the legs there is a probability of injuries. Most of the children also cries because ones they stand they do not know how to sit. For this, they should be guided to fold their knee and sit slowly.

Then after that when they reaches to the age of 11 months the child with a support or help of some elders start to walk slowly.

1/3rd of the children when attains the 13th month starts to walk without any ones help. It is better to train in plain surface and during this time, and can avoid use children shoes or chapels.

But do not be tensed if the child does not walk or attempts to walk because there are also some who walks even during 17th month. The characters of children do vary from each other. The child whom mostly does not be allowed to be in the floor may walk slowly as they do not attain the balance. The child born before the month also may walk slowly.

After attaining 18 months, the child also starts to walk through the steps; during that attempt parents should have a view on those children. The child should not be allowed to enter the steps when the guardians are not with them. Also during this time, they do dance with the songs from television or from radio.

When he attains the age of 3years, he walks smoothly as well as will run and even jump.

By Kevin Peter
Retrieved from http://hubpages.com/hub/Pros-and-Cons-of-Baby-Walkers

Pros and Cons of Baby Walkers :Everything a Mom Want to Know about Baby Walkers

There are many advantages of using baby walker. One is to be proud of giving a valuable gift to the babies and the baby will be happy inside it. So if we put the baby in walker then parents can do all the works without any tension. They think that the baby may walk more earlier.

Due to the above reasons when the child reaches the age of 5months the parents’ forced to buy the baby walker for their babies. But they are not even remembered of its side effects caused by these baby walkers. When the number of accidents caused by these walkers the Government of Canada prohibited this in Canada . Read my previous hub on BabyDiapers
Side effects caused by baby walkers.

* The recent studies brought out that children who uses the Baby walker will walk slower that the others. So that there will be a difference of about 2 to 3 weeks.
* Usually the bones above to that of knee help in walking but the child who uses the baby walker is done with the help of the bones below the knees.
* Since the child in the baby walker keeps on walking the tendency of manual walking arises slowly only. So the child may not even get the balance of walking. Hence, they walk later than that of others.
* Many walkers are designed in such a way that the baby cannot see their legs while walking. They cannot even recognize that they walk with the help of their legs.
* The children even show some different mode of walking than that of an ordinary child. The legs of those child are bended than that of an ordinary child. So that the way of walking may change and even becomes difficult to change as that of an ordinary man.
* Within a few time the child can reach wherever he needs with the help of the walker.

So that the other members of the family should be aware of this fact and should not keeps poisonous or any such items to their reach. Dangerous things like knife, needles, pins etc have to be kept safe elsewhere. Items such as sharp-headed furniture, door sides are to be always noted that they are moved from the way of fully opened so that to avoid accidents to the little ones.

By Kevin Peter
Retrieved from http://hubpages.com/hub/Pros-and-Cons-of-Baby-Walkers

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Strategies for Summer Reading for Children with Dyslexia

As a parent, you play a critical role in your child's education during the summer — especially if your child has dyslexia. Without your help, kids are more likely to forget what they learned last year. A recent study estimates that summer loss for all students equals about a month of academic learning. Most likely, children with learning disabilities need even more reinforcement.

Help them remember what they learned in school. That way they can start next year caught up or ahead of the other students in their class. Bring out their natural love of learning. And encourage them to read for pleasure without the pressure they experience in the classroom.

Here are some summer strategies to help your child with dyslexia remember what they learned in school and see that reading can be useful and enjoyable:

* Give them material that motivates them to read, even though they might find it hard to do. Try comic books, directions for interesting projects, and mystery stories. Have them read information on possible activities as you plan your summer vacation. Let them decide what they want to read.
* Support them as they read. Read their book aloud to them, help them decode, and make it easy for them to get the meaning. Even if a question is asked again and again or if you feel irritated, act happy that they asked. Show them that reading is a way to find out what they need to know, or even to entertain themselves.
* Give them easy reading. Summer is supposed to be relaxed. Let them succeed and get absorbed in the book.
* When you read with them, make it your goal to enjoy the book together. You don't have to make them read perfectly! Avoid too much correction. In school next year, the teacher will help them improve their skills.
* Let younger children "pretend" to read. Read the story aloud together. Let them follow your voice. Have them look at the words as you point to them, even if they aren't actually reading. When they say the wrong word, say the word correctly and cheerfully while pointing to the word.
* Read aloud to them as you do daily chores, sightsee, or sit on the beach. Read an instruction manual with them as you try to fix something. While visiting a museum, read the interpretive materials. If you see the slightest sign they want to read aloud to you, let them!
* Model and teach persistence. When you are working on something that is hard, model the discipline and patience that you want them to show while learning to read. Teach them explicitly the value of working hard to do something challenging. Tell them inspirational stories about famous people — or members of your own family — who have overcome obstacles.
* Accommodate their dyslexia. For example, if they have to read aloud in public, have them memorize their passage ahead of time. Ask the teacher or camp counselor to request volunteers to read rather than pass the book from one person to another. If you give them a recipe for cooking (or any project involving written directions), be sure that it is at their reading level and that the print is large enough for them.
* Use technology. If you have a computer, equip it with software that reads aloud. See Reading Software; Finding the Right Program. Let them load books into their electronic devices and listen to them at the same time as they read the printed book in their hands. Take a look at On the Go: What Consumer Devices Can do For You.
* Use recorded books. Use Recordings for the Blind and Dyslexic or audio books.
* Be a model of reading. Bring books to the beach and read them. If you are traveling, find a book for the whole family to read and discuss. If you are dyslexic, "read" your taped books on vacation, letting your child see you or give them their own tapes. Show and tell them how you overcome your own difficulties.
* Have reading matter conveniently available. You might carry small children's books and magazines with you and have them ready when you must wait in line for those crowded amusement park rides and popular sightseeing destinations.

The summer months are important to your child's academic development in two ways. First, they need to be reminded of what they learned during the school year so that they remember it when they return in the fall. Second, and perhaps more important, children with dyslexia can discover the joys of reading and other academic skills in the relaxed summer season. If nobody tells them they have to read to get good grades, they might just pick up a book and enjoy it.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)
Retrieved from: http://www.ldonline.org/article/15569?utm_source=Twitter&utm_medium=Hootsuite&utm_campaign=LDOnline.org

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